Research Article | Open Access
Volume 2024 |Article ID 0026 |

Multidimensional Optimization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Carotenoid Overproduction

Jian Fan,1,5 Yang Zhang,1,2,5 Wenhao Li,1 Zhizhen Li,1 Danli Zhang,1 Qiwen Mo,1 Mingfeng Cao,3,4 Jifeng Yuan 1,2,4

1State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Fujian 361102, China
2Shenzhen Research Institute of Xiamen University, Shenzhen 518057, China
3College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Fujian 361005, China
4Key Laboratory for Synthetic Biotechnology of Xiamen City, Xiamen University, Fujian 361005, China
5These authors contributed equally to this work

06 Nov 2023
12 Dec 2023
10 Jan 2024


Microbial synthesis of carotenoids is a highly desirable alternative to plant extraction and chemical synthesis. In this study, we investigated multidimensional strategies to improve the carotenoid synthesis in the industrial workhorse of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. First, we rewired the yeast central metabolism by optimizing non-oxidative glycolysis pathway for an improved acetyl-CoA supply. Second, we restricted the consumption of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) by the down-regulation of squalene synthase using the PEST degron. Third, we further explored the human lipid binding/transfer protein saposin B (hSapB)-mediated metabolic sink for an enhanced storage of lipophilic carotenoids. Last, the copper-induced GAL expression system was engineered to function in the yeast–peptone–dextrose medium for an increased biomass accumulation. By combining the abovementioned strategies, the final engineered yeast produced 166.79 ± 10.43 mg/l β-carotene in shake flasks, which was nearly 5-fold improvement of the parental carotenoid-producing strain. Together, we envision that multidimensional strategies reported here might be applicable to other hosts for the future industrial development of carotenoid synthesis from renewable feedstocks.

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